数字孪生的模型、问题与进展研究
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河北省高层次人才资助项目(A2016002015);河北省人力资源和社会保障厅留学人员科技活动择优资助项目(CL201611,CL201613); 河北省科技支撑计划项目(17210104D); 河北省高等学校科学技术研究项目(ZD2015099); 河北省交通运输厅科技计划项目(Y-2014025); 张承高速承德段科技计划项目(CZC-2014KY-1); 河北省研究生创新资助项目(CXZZSS2018093)


Research on Digital Twin: Model, problem and progress
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    摘要:

    近年来,关于数字孪生的研究方兴未艾。数字孪生作为一个新的范式或者方法体现出了巨大的潜力,但是,这一概念的内涵和范围尚不确定,尤其是对数字孪生模型概念的界定很不清晰。根据模式类别可以将其分为通用模型和专用模型,其中专用模型仍是当前的研究热点,研究内容主要体现为对具体项目使用数字孪生方法进行建模,也包括对专用模型进行开发。这些具体项目除了传统制造业所涉及的零件测量和质量控制,增材制造,设计和工作过程,以及系统管理外,还包括在生物医药、石油工程领域的应用等。开发专用模型的工具和技术呈现多元化,有通用工业软件、专用工业软件、仿真平台和自研二次开发工具等等。数字孪生通用模型的研究对象不针对某一具体项目,而是研究如何将模型受控元素表示为一组通用的对象以及这些对象之间的关系,从而在不同的环境之间为受控元素的管理和通信提供一种一致的方法。数字孪生通用模型的研究主要分为概念研究和通用模型的实现方法,两者的研究热度相当。其中概念研究从宏观角度的产品生命周期管理,到描述系统行为,如一般系统行为和系统重新配置,再到具体工作流,如设计方法、产品构型管理、制造系统、制造过程等,研究内容较为发散,尚没有出现特别突出的热点。关于数字孪生通用模型实现方面,主要研究了建模语言的构建、模型开发方法的探索、具体工具的使用、元模型理念的植入和模型算法的探索。数字孪生模型是数字孪生研究的核心领域之一,其未来的研究重点是如何将不断涌现的各不相同的数字孪生体的外部特征和内在属性归纳为可集成、可交互、可扩展的模型,便于更高效地实现信息在物理世界和数字世界之间流动,从而实现数字孪生的普遍应用,继而支持CPS(网络物理空间)和CPPS(网络物理生产系统)的建设。因此,数字孪生模型研究下一步需要解决的问题是如何对接标准参考架构,如德国提出的工业4.0参考架构模型RAMI4.0和中国的智能制造系统架构IMSA等;关于数字孪生模型需要建立统一的描述方法并确立一致的结论,以规范各自独立发展建立起来的模型,从而改善模型的互操作性和可扩展性,否则,随着系统规模的扩大模型效能会显著下降;中国数字孪生模型的研究急需国产专业工业软件和建模软件的支持,以便中国学者深入开展更加符合国情的深入研究。

    Abstract:

    In recent years, the research on Digital Twin is in the ascendant. As a new paradigm or concept, it shows great potential. However, the connotation and scope of the Digital Twin concept is still uncertain, especially the Digital Twin Model definition is not clear.According to the pattern category, the Digital Twin Model can be divided into general model and special model, in which the special model is still the focus of current research, and the research content is mainly embodied in the use of Digital Twin method to model specific projects. It also includes concept for developing specialized models. These specific projects in addition to the traditional manufacturing related to parts measurement and quality control, manufacturing, design and work processes, as well as system management, but also in the field of biomedical applications and applications for petroleum engineering and so on. There are many tools and techniques for developing special models, such as general industrial software, special industrial software, simulation platform and self-developed secondary development tools, etc.The research object of the Digital Twin general model is not specific to a specific project, but how to represent the controlled elements of the model as a group of common objects and the relationships between these objects. This provides a consistent approach to the management and communication of controlled elements between different environments. The research on the general model is mainly divided into the conceptual research and the model implementation method; the research heat of the two directions is almost the same. Conceptual research ranges from product lifecycle management to system behavior description, such as general system behavior and system reconfiguration, and to product configuration management, to specific workflow, such as design methods, manufacturing systems and manufacturing processes. The research content is relatively divergent, and there is no particularly prominent hot spot. The research of Digital Twin general model implementation is mainly reflected in the modeling language construction, the model development methods exploration, the specific tools usage, the Meta-model concept implantation and the model algorithm exploration.Digital Twin Model is one of the core areas of Digital Twin research. Its future research focuses on how to integrate the external features and intrinsic properties from different Digital Twin artifacts into a model with interoperability, interactivity and scalability for more efficiently realizing the information flow between the physical world and the digital world, thus achieving the universal Digital Twin application, and then supporting the CPS (Cyber Physical Space) and CPPS (Cyber Physical Production System) construction. To this end, the next problem in the Digital Twin Model needing to be solved first is how to dock the standard reference architecture, such as the RAMI4.0 (Reference Architecture Model Industrial 4.0) proposed by Germany and the IMSA (Intelligent Manufacturing System Architecture) by China, etc. Secondly, the Digital Twin Model needs a unified method to describe and it also needs consistent conclusions, in order to standardize the models established by independent development, thus improving the interoperability and scalability of the model. Otherwise, the performance of the model will decrease significantly as the system scales raise. Thirdly, the research on China's Digital Twin Model requires the support of domestic professional industrial software and modeling software, so that the Chinese scholars can carry out in-depth research that is more in line with national conditions.

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刘 青,刘 滨,王 冠,张 宸,梁知行,张 鹏.数字孪生的模型、问题与进展研究[J].河北科技大学学报,2019,40(1):68-78

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  • 收稿日期:2018-12-10
  • 最后修改日期:2018-12-20
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  • 在线发布日期: 2019-01-19
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