Editor in chief：朱立光
International standard number：ISSN 1008-1542
Unified domestic issue：CN 13-1225/TS
Domestic postal code：
- Most Read
- Most Cited
- Most Downloaded
2017, 38(3):209-217. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03001
Abstract:In recent years, structural adhesive bonding technology has been widely used in many industrial fields, with many advantages over traditional mechanical connection methods, such as riveting, welding and bolt connection. Due to the adhesive characteristics of polymer materials, the environmental durability of adhesive joint becomes the key problems in engineering structure connection feasibility and long-term service reliability. On the basis of the review of the research of the hot-humid environmental durability of structural adhesive joints, the effects of temperature, moisture and coupled condition on the structural mechanical behaviour are discussed, introducing the published research progress and results both at home and abroad. The prospects are provided: the future research work can be combined with a variety of observation scales of environmental aging test and numerical simulation method, delve into sub hygroscopic, creep, thermal expansion and hygroscopic expansion aging behavior, such as the environment of model prediction method simulation in more than a variety of mechanical performance degradation behavior of coupling conditions, and provide more reliable theoretical modeling and experimental data for engineering design and application of cementing structure.
2017, 38(3):218-228. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03002
Abstract:In order to systematically study the application of groove pressing in preparing bulk mass ultra-fine grain sheet metal, the fundamental principles, plastic mechanics analysis and classification of groove pressing are introduced, and on the basis of which, the influence rules and mechanism of processing factors such as pass number, deformation temperature and die structure on groove pressing are reviewed, and some key problems such as thermal stability of processed materials, process improvements and deformation path, deformation homogeneity analysis and process optimization are summarized. The research trends of groove pressing in the fields of application to sheet metals difficult to deform at room temperature, improvement of ductility, toughness and formability of processed sheets as well as its plastic deformation mechanism are prospected: in the future, groove pressing will be used for sheet metals which have limited formability but wide industrial applications such as magnesium alloys and titanium alloys, and much attention should be paid to investigation on performance adjustment mechanism and methods for processed sheets and exploration of effective technological measures for preventing cracks; meanwhile, the evolution mechanism of microstructure and properties of groove pressed materials must be systematically and thoroughly revealed.
2017, 38(3):229-236. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03003
Abstract:To tackle the problem existing in the process of cross-domain knowledge acquisition in biologically inspired design, a functional semantic clustering based on functional feature semantic correlation and an environment-based clustering based on environment-constrained adaptability for biologically inspired design are proposed. On the one hand, the fuzzy theory and fuzzy mathematics are introduced into the knowledge cell clustering algorithm, and the semantic similarity calculation method based on the fuzzy membership function is proposed to realize the semantic clustering based on the functional keywords. On the other hand, an AFCM algorithm is proposed by introducing the FCM clustering algorithm into the knowledge cell clustering process, and combining the provided different types of environmental feature constraints similarity algorithm, the environment constra-ined clustering based on the adaptability of environmental feature constraints is achieved. Finally, the corresponding prototype system is developed, and the visual prosthesis device design is tested. The results show that the clustering time and accuracy are greatly improved and the clustering efficiency is improved significantly. The algorithm avoids effectively the discreteness of cross domain knowledge distribution, reduces the number of the research objects during the design process, and can acquire reasonably the existing design knowledge, which establishes a basis for further study.
2017, 38(3):237-243. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03004
Abstract:To solve the poor real-time performance problem of the visual odometry based on embedded system with limited computing resources, an image matching method based on Harris and SIFT is proposed, namely the Harris-SIFT algorithm. On the basis of the review of SIFT algorithm, the principle of Harris-SIFT algorithm is provided. First, Harris algorithm is used to extract the corners of the image as candidate feature points, and scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features are extracted from those candidate feature points. At last, through an example, the algorithm is simulated by Matlab, then the complexity and other performance of the algorithm are analyzed. The experimental results show that the proposed method reduces the computational complexity and improves the speed of feature extraction. Harris-SIFT algorithm can be used in the real-time vision odometer system, and will bring about a wide application of visual odometry in embedded navigation system.
2017, 38(3):244-248. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03005
Abstract:In order to well investigate the effect of different substrates on the friction and wear of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating, the DLC coatings are deposited on substrates like the high-speed steel (HSS), SiC and 304 stainless steel by using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. The diamond-like carbon is prepared. The microstructure of the coatings is characterized using SEM, TEM and Raman. The SEM results exhibit that the total thickness of the coatings is about 6.5 μm, and there's apparent interfaces between layers. The TEM results imply that the coatings have an amorphous structure. Raman spectrum exhibits that G and D peaks are observed, which implies that the deposition coatings are diamond-like carbon coating. The results of tribological tests show that the substrates have a significant effect on the friction and wear of the coating. For different substrates, the transfer film is found on the steel counterpart surface, the wear track of the HSS has a lowest width, and the DLC coating that deposited on HSS exhibits the lowest wear and low friction coefficient (about 0.1).The microstructure of different substrates wear track surfaces is analyzed by using Raman spectrum, and the lowest wear of the HSS is attributed to the lower degree of the graphitization. The research provides reference for preparing the DLC coating with excellent tribological properties.
2017, 38(3):249-254. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03006
Abstract:In order to establish a NP-HPLC method for the determination of enantiomer in vildagliptin intermediate, the determination is carried out on the column of ChiralpakAD-H(250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm), with the mobile phase of n-hexane, ethanol and methanol（volume ratio of 65∶25∶10）at flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The sample volume is 10 μL, the wavelength is 210 nm and the column temperature is 35 ℃. The result shows that the vildagliptin intermediate and its enantiomer could be well separated and detected effectively; blank solvent doesn't interfere with the enantiomer assaying; the detection limit is 27 ng/mL and the quantification limit is 81 ng/mL; in repetitive test, the RSD of enantiomer assaying of samples are no more than 2.0%; in stability test, the RSD are no more than 2.0% in 12 h; the vildagliptin intermediate and its enantiomer could be well separated in the test of durability with all RSDs below 2.0%. The method is simple, reliable, accurate and durable, and can be used for determination of enantiomer in vildagliptin intermediate.
2017, 38(3):255-262. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03007
Abstract:The p-aminophenyl-β-sulfatoethylsulfone is one of the most important intermediates of vinyl-sulfone reactive dyes, and the demanded quantity increases gradually. The synthetic routes of p-aminophenyl-β-sulfatoethylsulfone using acetanilide, p-nitrochlorobenzene, etc. as raw materials are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages and improved method of various kinds of synthetic routes are introduced, the objective evaluation is made for each synthetic route, and the esterification for synthesis of the intermediates of β-hydroxyethylsulfone esterification is analyzed. The prospect of p-aminophenyl-β-sulfatoethylsulfone is forecasted: Attaches great importance to the development of new routes, uses clean technology and new technology, develops the competitive products, speeds up the development of dye intermediates, and develops high value-added products.
2017, 38(3):263-268. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03008
Abstract:In order to find an alternative reduction method, making the 2 -［3-chloro-5 - (trifluoromethyl) pyridine - 2- yl］ acetonitrile to be reduced to 2-［3-chlor-5 - (trifluoromethyl) pyridini-2- yl］ ethane under mild conditions，the key intermediate 2-(3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)ethan-1-amine hydrochloride is obtained through condensation of the starting material 2,3-dichloro-5-(trifluoromethyl) pyridine with ethyl-2-cyanoacetate, decarboxylation, reduction, and deprotection reaction; then the targeted compound fluopyram is synthesized through the reaction of 2-(3-chloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)ethan-1-amine hydrochloride with 2-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl chloride. The reaction factors and parameters are optimized. The optimized conditions are as follows: in reduction reaction, n(substrate)∶n(NiCl2)∶n(NaBH4)=1∶1∶2; in deprotection reaction, the deprotection reagent is hydrogen chloride in ethyl acetate solution; in amidation reaction, the reaction solvent is dichloromethane, the proton scavenger is triethylamine and the reaction temperature is 10~15 ℃. Under the optimized conditions, the total yield of fluopyram reaches 48.1% (counted based on 2,3-dichloro-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine). The structure of fluopyram is confirmed by ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. This synthetic method is mild in response, simple in operation and has high yield of target products.
2017, 38(3):269-277. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03009
Abstract:In order to more effectively analyze the performance of logistics emergency rescue system, based on analyzing the characteristics and main functions of the Petri net and its advantage of describing asynchronous concurrent random image system, this paper introduces stochastic Petri net modeling method to establish emergency system model on the basis of serious natural disasters or emergencies, and analyzes the performance. Firstly, according to the emergency rescue system of logistics flow chart, the Petri net model is built, and through the analysis of accessibility, activity and safety, the validity of the model is verified; Secondly, the Markov chain is constructed using the characteristics of isostructuralism with the Markov stochastic process, the linear equations is established, and a numerical example is introduced, reflecting the problems of the system through the quantitative analysis of main performance indexes. Finally, some suggestions are put forward about the problems. On the one hand, this modeling can vividly describe the sequential and asynchronous concurrent relationships between the processes; on the other hand, its mature performance analysis method can effectively explore the key links which have significant impacts on the operational efficiency of the system. The system analysis theory provides a feasible method for the analysis of system flow, and the proposal provides a theoretical basis for the optimization of the entire emergency logistics rescue system.
2017, 38(3):278-284. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03010
Abstract:In order to improve the precision and accuracy of artificial potential field, and avoid the situation of hovering on the end point and being caught in minimum value, a path planning algorithm based on artificial potential algorithm for unmanned aerial vehicle is presented. The traditional artificial potential field method is improved: chaos theory is used to improve artificial potential field calculation formula, which changes the potential field coefficients of each barrier and target point, resulting in the best screened out route. The simulation experimental analysis and result show that the optimized algorithm considers the influence of obstacles to the optimization process, ruling out the situation of hovering on the end point in unmanned aerial vehicle route planning, and through iterative method, the algorithm has the ability to adapt to different maps. The improved artificial potential field method is better than the traditional artificial potential field method in speed and precision aspects.
2017, 38(3):285-290. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03011
Abstract:In order to improve the corrosion resisting property of ferrous metals in molten zinc, siliconizing, molybdenumizing and silicon-molybdenumizing are carried out on the Q235 steel surface by solid powder method. The infiltration layers’ morphology, compactness degree, microhardness, component and phase structure are analyzed. Moreover, the samples are soaked in the molten zinc bath at 470 ℃ for 26 h, and their corrosion rate is measured. The results show that the intermetallic compounds (Fe3Si, Fe3Mo, MoSi2 and Mo5Si3) with good corrosion resisting property are produced in infiltration layers. The addition of Mo element can promote the penetration of Si element in the infiltration agents, thus increasing the compact density of infiltration layers. The comparative results also prove that the silicon-molybdenumizing layers are more compact, especially for the sample with m(Si)∶m(Mo)=2∶1. Its corrosion rate decreases almost two orders of magnitude compared with that of the substrate, showing better corrosion resisting property. However, the existence of defects (such as holes) in the infiltration layers leads to the decrease of compact density, and the corrosion resisting property in molten zinc is also affected. Therefore, in the future studies much attention should be paid to the improvement of the compact density of solid infiltration layers, so as to further increase the corrosion resisting property.
2017, 38(3):291-297. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03012
Abstract:Using coating on the hot forming steel can effectively avoid the surface defects such as surface oxidation and decarburization in the thermoforming process, and make the workpiece have a certain degree of corrosion resistance after molding. This paper studies the effect of the variation of microstructure and heat treatment process in the heating process of 22MnB5 hot forming steel with Zn plating layer on coating microstructure and properties. The microstructure and morphology of 22MnB5 with zinc based coatings by different pre-alloying and austenitizing technology are analyzed by SEM, EDS, and glow spectrum analyzer. The results show that under the same pre-alloying time, with the temperature improved, the coating's phases change from ζ phase, δ phase, Γ1 phase and Γ phase to mainly Γ phase; under the same temperature, as the pre-alloying process time goes by, the contents of Fe gradually increases but Zn decreases, finally the Fe content could reach 88%, and Zn reaches 8% in the coating; the coating is almost all α-Fe (Zn) with only a small amount of Γ phase on the surface, and the thickness of the coating is about 12 μm; high quality coatings could be obtained under the pre-alloying process of heating at 550 ℃ for 30 min and austenitizing at 920 ℃ for 4 min. The result provides important reference for developing new hot forming steel coating.
2017, 38(3):298-304. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03013
Abstract:In order to get the optimal growth conditions of anammox bacteria, the mature-cultured anammox granule sludge is used to investigate the influencing factors. The effects of temperature, pH value, COD and influent substrate (NO-2-N and NH+4-N) on anammox bacteria activity are investigated. The results demonstrate that the optimal temperature is 40 ℃ and the optimal pH value is between 7.0~8.0 for anammox bacteria. The anammox bacteria activity is not inhibited severely when COD concentration is lower than 100 mg/L, while the denitrifying bacteria is dominant and inhibits the anammox bacteria activity when COD concentration is higher than 100 mg/L. When the influent NH+4-N and NO-2-N concentration are lower than 1 540 mg/L and 140 mg/L respectively, the anammox bacteria activity is not inhibited severely. Controlling the optimal growth conditions of anammox technical helps the rapid growth of anammox bacteria, which establishes the foundation for the rapid start-up of anammox reactor.
2017, 38(3):305-312. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2017yx03014
Abstract:The comprehensive toxicity of haze cannot be evaluated by evaluating each pollutant separately because haze contains complex components. In order to quickly, accurately and comprehensively evaluate the comprehensive toxicity of haze, Algae chlorophyll fluorescence method is used to assess the biological toxicity. With Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Microcystis aeruginosa used as experiment algae, and the haze in the heating period as the research object, the solution absorption method and membrane weighing method are used to collect the liquid absorption haze and total suspended particles haze (TSP), respectively. The change of fluorescence parameters (Y(Ⅱ), NPQ, qP, ETR, Fv/Fm) of single algae under the stress of the haze absorption liquid and the total suspended particulate matter are detected by water fluorescence detector. The results show that Chlorella pyrenoidosa is more sensitive to exogenous haze exposure, and the fluorescence parameters decreases significantly, especially that the concentration of NPQ decreases by 46.3% and 40.2% under the influence of haze absorption in the two days of heavy pollution, while Microcystis aeruginosa displays obvious characterization only in the interference of total suspended particulate matter leaching solution. Therefore, it is possible that the NPQ parameter of Chlorella pyrenoidosa is selected as an indicator for haze biological toxicity.