Editor in chief：朱立光
International standard number：ISSN 1008-1542
Unified domestic issue：CN 13-1225/TS
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2016, 37(1):1-6. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01001
Abstract:Spatial optical sensor & detector is an important component or type of a spacecraft, but the abundant existing spatial charged particle would cause background noise and performance degradation to the sensor & detector, affecting space exploration task. Currently, there lacks quantitative evaluation method for the impact of spatial charged particle. Besides, there is limitation for the widely used mass shielding, permanent magnet deflection and anticoincidence technology in shielding spatial charged particle. So, this paper reviews the researches about the problem, and provides a novel design thought about spatial charged particle shielding system for spatial optical sensor & detector based on electric & magnetic complex field.
2016, 37(1):7-12. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01002
Abstract:In order to shorten fatigue test period of wind turbine blades, a fatigue loading method based on the dual-axes resonance driven by electricity is proposed. The method for detecting the speed and phase of the two loading sources is given, and the synchronization control strategy is formulated. The master-slave network framework mode is applied in the control system. The speed and phase of the two loading sources are measured by using high-speed pulse counting sensor, the blade amplitude is obtained by laser range finder, and the PC monitoring interface is developed by using Labview. Test results show that the speed, phase, blade amplitude of the loading sources and other characteristic parameters can be measured well by using the monitoring system, which provides a new test platform for dual-axis resonance fatigue test of wind turbine blades.
2016, 37(1):13-19. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01003
Abstract:Aiming at the requirements of the vibration isolation with two rotational degrees of freedom under specific conditions, a spherical 2-DOF parallel vibration isolation platform is proposed based on the theory of spherical parallel mechanism. From the view point of theory of mechanism, the operating principle is analyzed and the degree of freedom is calculated, and the virtual prototype design of vibration isolation platform is carried out. With D-H representation method of robot mechanism, the constraint equation is developed under the constraint conditions of the above link arc angle, and the inverse kinematics is realized. The kinematics positive solution process is given based on numerical method, and the solution examples of positive and inverse solution are given. Analysis and simulation results show that the 2-DOF spherical parallel mechanism proposed in this paper has the characteristics of good controllability, and the kinematic model is reasonable and effective, meeting the need of low-frequency vibration isolation performance.
2016, 37(1):20-25. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01004
Abstract:Friction stir welding technique is used for the processing of TC4 titanium alloy under protective atmosphere, and it results with good formability. The research focues on the evolution mechanisms of α+β dual phase microstructure in stirred zone and the effects of processing parameters on structures hardness. The results show that with optimized technological parameters, stir zone structure experiences the α/β transformation, and finally changes to the α+β duplex structure which is based on the β phase. After mixing head leaves and the structure cools, the precipitated lamellar α phase is among and/or within-regions. Grain refining of α+β dual phase is obvious. The shortened α/β lamellar spacing distance may improve the strengthening effect of the α+β duplex phase and enhance the hardness of the stir zone. The increasing of the tool rotation speed could coarsen β-regions, while the increasing of the travel speed could help reduce the α phase ratio and generate needle-type Martensites.
2016, 37(1):26-32. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01005
Abstract:By using electrochemical deposition method, and assisted with additions of PEG-400 and EDA, well-aligned ZnO nanorods and hierarchical ZnO micro-nanostructure are fabricated directly on indium doped tin oxide coated conducting glass (ITO) substrate. The shell-core Sb2S3/ZnO nanorod structure and the shell-core hierarchical Sb2S3/ZnO micro-nanostructure are prepared by chemical bath deposition method. SEM, XRD, UV-Vis and photocurrent test are used to characterize the morphology, nanostructures and their photoelectrochemical properties. The studies show that the photocurrent on the array membranes with shell-core hierarchical Sb2S3/ZnO micro-nanostructure is apparently higher than that with shell-core Sb2S3/ZnO nanorods array.
2016, 37(1):33-38. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01006
Abstract:The heat stabilizer Zinc cyanurate is prepared with zinc oxide and cyanuric acid as raw materials under the condition of weak acid. The product is characterized by FTIR and X-ray diffraction. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that zinc cyanurate as heat stabilizer can passivate unstable structures in PVC chain, absorb hydrogen chloride gas, and inhibit self catalytic of PVC, which effectively slow the thermal degradation of PVC. The thermal stability performance of zinc cyanurate as the thermal stabilizer of PVC is investigated by static Congo red test, dryer thermal ageing test and dynamic rheological test. It is found that when the mass of heat stabilizer is 0.3% of PVC, the thermal stability of zinc cyanurate is better compared to that of zinc stearate, and the thermal stability time of PVC with zinc cyanurate is 18 min, nearly two times that of PVC with zinc stearate; the thermal stability of zinc cyanurate for PVC is superior to that of traditional zinc stearate, and zine cyanurate can prolong the zinc burning phenomnon; zinc cyanurate and PVC have good compatibility and lubricity.
2016, 37(1):39-46. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01007
Abstract:A poly(L-cysteine)/graphene oxide composite modified glassy carbon naphthol electrode is constructed, which is used for simultaneous determination of 1-naphthol (1-NAP) and 2-naphthol (2-NAP). The electrochemical behavior of 1-NAP and 2-NAP on the modified electrode are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), and the conditions to modify the electrode and to detect naphthol isomers are optimized. The results show that the modified electrode has an excellent electrocatalytic activity in the oxidation of the naphthol in phosphate buffered solution of 0.1 mol/L PBS (pH 7.5). The difference of oxidation peak potential between 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol could reach 0182 V, which is almost large enough to achieve the simultaneous detection for 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol in a mixture solution. Under optimized experimental conditions, differential pulse voltammetry is adopted to detect naphthol isomer. It is found that the oxidation peak currents of 1-NAP and 2-NAP show a good linear relationship with the concentration in the range of 2~40 μmol/L and 1~40 μmol/L, respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) for 1-NAP and 2-NAP are 0.19 μmol/L and 0.12 μmol/L, respectively. The modified electrode shows good stability and reproducibility and has strong anti-interference ability in the detection. The electrode is applied to determine 1-NAP and 2-NAP in real water samples, and the average recoveries are in the range of 98.9% to 101.7% and 97.7% to 102.1%, respectively.
2016, 37(1):47-51. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01008
Abstract:The tail-sitter Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV), flying in a fixed-wing model, overcomes many shortcomings of traditional fixed-wing UAVs, and inherits the advantage of high overall efficiency, which means it has great development potential and very broad application prospects. The attitude of tail-sitter VTOL UAV shows a wide change range in its takeoff and landing stages, and when the attitude sensor changes more than 90 degrees in pitch direction, the Euler angles converted by the Quaternions will have singular points, which means gimbal deadlock appears. From the solution algorithm, this paper provides a method of changing the order of rotation to avoid the appearance of singular points. The results show that this method can be well applied to the attitude solution of the VTOL UAV.
2016, 37(1):52-57. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01009
Abstract:To solve the combination explosion problem and the blind searching problem in assembly sequence planning of complex products, an assembly sequence planning method based on composite algorithm is proposed. In the composite algorithm, a sufficient number of feasible assembly sequences are generated using formalization reasoning algorithm as the initial population of genetic algorithm. Then fuzzy knowledge of assembly is integrated into the planning process of genetic algorithm and ant algorithm to get the accurate solution. At last, an example is conducted to verify the feasibility of composite algorithm.
2016, 37(1):58-64. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01010
Abstract:The blast furnace gas contains plenty of dust, which deposits easily on the bottom of seat sealing surface of the tri-eccentric butterfly valve in the pipeline, causing stuck and damage to the valve plate, thereby affects the production of the blast furnace and brings great economic loss. To derive the influence mechanism of effects of the blast furnace gas flow speed within the pipeline on the dust deposition laws in the butterfly valve region, a 3D model of the butterfly valve and its regional flow field is built with Pro/E software. Based on FLUENT module of ANSYS Workbench, along with standard k-ε turbulence model and DPM model, simulation analysis of moving trajectories of dust particles in butterfly valve region under 3 blast furnace gas flow speeds is conducted. Results show that the deposition mass of dust particles decreases firstly, then increases with the enlargement of valve plate opening angle under the blast furnace gas flow speed of 8 m/s, while decreases with the enlargement of valve plate opening under the blast furnace gas flow speeds of 12 m/s and 16 m/s. In the case of the valve plate opening angle of 15°, the deposition rate of dust particles increases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed, while decreases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed under the cases of valve plate opening angle of 45° and 75°. The research results provide a theoretical reference for the development of automatic dust removal system in the butterfly valve region of the blast furnace gas pipeline.
2016, 37(1):65-69. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01011
Abstract:The 6061 alloy cooling curve is determined by analysis software, and the 6061 semi-solid alloy is prepared by manual paddling process. The primary solid fraction is tested through prepared water quenched samples under different temperature. With H1F100 type servo press and cup type test mold, the forming of the 6061 semi-solid alloy rheological casting-forging is made. The influence of alloy temperature, forming pressure, upper mould temperature and holding time on the formability of 6061 alloy is researched. The results show that within the same set of mold completing casting and forging of the alloy is feasible. Along with the increase of the alloy temperature and the upper mould temperature, the formability of finished products becomes better. Under this experimentation, when the temperature of the semi-solid alloy is amongst 642 ℃ to 645 ℃ and the upper mould preheating temperature is amongst 200 ℃ to 300 ℃, casting defects such as cold insulation will form in the casting-forging sample of semi-solid 6061 alloy with the prolongation of holding time.
2016, 37(1):70-75. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01012
Abstract:In order to study the novel green organic mercury-substituting inhibitors, the ionic liquid surfactant 1-methyl-3-dodecyl imidazole bromide ( 2mim］Br) is synthesized with N-methyl imidazole and 1-bromodecane as raw materials. The corrosion inhibition of ［C12mim］Br for zinc in zinc-manganese batteries is investigated using electrochemical methods and weight loss methods. The results show that corrosion inhibition efficiency increases with the increase of the concentration of ［C12mim］Br, and when the concentration is higher than 8×10-3 mol/L, the inhibition efficiency tends to be stable. The polarization curve shows that ［C12mim］Br belongs to mixed-type corrosion inhibitor. The thermodynamic parameters show that ［C12mim］Br is spontaneously adsorbed on the zinc surface, forming a monomolecular adsorption layer, which fits with Langmuir adsorption isotherm with physical and chemical adsorption mechanism.
2016, 37(1):76-82. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01013
Abstract:Digital image processing technology is one of the new methods for yarn detection, which can realize the digital characterization and objective evaluation of yarn appearance. This paper overviews the current status of development and application of digital image processing technology used for yarn hairiness evaluation, and analyzes and compares the traditional detection methods and this new developed method. Compared with the traditional methods, the image processing technology based method is more objective, fast and accurate, which is the vital development trend of the yarn appearance evaluation.
2016, 37(1):83-87. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01014
Abstract:To study tensile fracture of various component fibers of polyester/cotton yarns, acoustic emission signal acquisition device is built, which is used to collect the acoustic emission signals of polyester, cotton and polyester/cotton ring spun yarn, respectively. The acoustic emission time domain signal is translated into frequency domain signal by HHT and ICA analysis method, and the frequency and amplitude are extracted. Based on kernel density estimation method, acoustic emission signals of polyester fibers and cotton fibers in the tensile process of polyester/cotton yarns are analyzed. The results show that frequency spectrum can be used to characterize the acoustic emission signals of the component fibers, the difference of characteristic frequency spectrum of acoustic emission signal of various materials can be expressed by kernel density estimation of characteristic frequency in each stage of tensile fracture process, and the fracture order of the component fibers can be deduced.
2016, 37(1):88-95. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01015
Abstract:By using thermo gravimetric balance, experimental research on combustion characteristics and dynamics parameters of the typical coal injection from some domestic steelworks are conducted with non-isothermal method. The combustion characteristic parameters of the sample pulverized coal such as ignition temperature, peak temperature at maximum weight loss rate, burnout temperature, general burn exponent(S), and maximum combustion rate are studied under pressure grades of 0.1, 1.1, 2.1, 3.1 and 4.1 MPa, the activation energy (E) and pre-exponential factor in the combustion process are calculated. The results show that when the pressure increases from 0.1 to 4.1 MPa, ignition temperature decreases by 85.7 K at most, peak temperature at maximum weight loss rate decreases by 249.3 K at most, burnout temperature decreases by 375 K at most, maximum weight loss rate increases by 10 times, and S increases by 33.6 times at most. It is also shown that there exists a kinetic complementation between E and ln A from the view point of dynamics, and the critical pressure of pulverized coal reaction control requirement and combustion mode transform is 3.1 MPa for the pulverized coal.
2016, 37(1):96-101. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01016
Abstract:The denitrification characteristics of a sulfur autotrophic denitrification reactor are investigated. The results show that domestication of sulfur autotrophic bacteria is completed within 15 days after biofilm formation in the reactor, which is shorter than other similar researches. The nitrogen removal rate remains over than 90%, and the denitrification rate reaches 18.5 mg N/(L·h) with influent NO-3-N of 70 mg/L , influent pH of 8 and HRT of 4.3 h . Thiobacillus denitrificans are observed in the whole reactor when domestication finishes, while it is more abundant in the middle and lower part. The optimal influent NO-3-N concentration for the reactor is 50 mg/L, the optimal temperature is 30~35 ℃, the optimal influent pH is 7~8, and the nitrogen removal rate is over than 90%.
2016, 37(1):102-108. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2016yx01017
Abstract:Developing low-investment, low-energy consumption and low-maintenance sewage treatment process is important for sewage treatment in rural areas. An upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) without energy consumption and a subsurface flow wetland (SFW) are utilized as a biological-ecological coupling process to treat rural domestic sewage. The effect of the coupling process on treatment performance of domestic sewage under different hydraulic retention time (HRT) is investigated. The removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the SFW is improved by increasing plant density. The results show that the coupling process of UAF and SFW has no power consumption and is maintenance-free, suitable for rural sewage treatment; the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus mainly happens in the SFW phase; increasing the density of reed plants in the SFW can obviously enhance the capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus, and ensure that the efficient performance of the coupling process of UAF and SFW is stabilized in a high level. When the HRTs of UAF and SFW are 18 h and 3 d, respectively, the concentrations of COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the final effluent treated by UAF and SFW process are 44.07, 4.25, 13.36 and 0.44 mg/L, respectively, meeting the requirement of first grade class A in Discharge Standard of Pollutants for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (GB 18918-2002).