Editor in chief：朱立光
International standard number：ISSN 1008-1542
Unified domestic issue：CN 13-1225/TS
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2014, 35(4):309-317. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04001
Abstract:Engineering bionics research has been more widely used in the field of agricultural machinery. Based on the research of insects anti-adhesion and anti-resistance rule and carnivorous plants predation phenomenon, the engineering bionic technology utilized in agricultural production fields is gradually formed. Started from the research status of anti-adhesion and anti-resistance of biomimetic agricultural machine, as well as the biomimetic design and manufacture of slippery trapping plate used in controlling agricultural pests, this paper reviews the manifestation rules and mechanism exhibited by the non-smooth surface morphology of the typical animals and vegetations to their physiology function characteristics, and reviews the application research of the engineering bionics in the field of farming machinery and the mechanized controlling of agricultural pests, then analyzes potential research direction and development prospects in the field of engineering bionics.
2014, 35(4):318-323. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04002
Abstract:Inspired by the similarity between ant foraging behavior model and task allocation production process selection in manufacturing system, a pheromone-based coordination mechanism for task allocation is proposed. The pheromone-based static and dynamic coordination algorithms for production process selection in manufacturing system are given. The simulation results demonstrate that relatively lower processing costs as well as the balanced utilization of machines can be achieved by using the proposed algorithm, which has high adaptability to the disturbance from inside or outside of the manufacturing system. It provides a new feasible idea for dealing with an actual allocation problem of production tasks.
2014, 35(4):324-329. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04003
Abstract:High frequency ultrasonic, even megasonic bath cleaning has been one of the most successful techniques for nano-particle removal in semiconductor manufactural. The megasonic energy in sound field determines the cleaning effect, including the uniformity removal and object destruction cleaning. The distribution of sonic pressure in a wet cleaning bath is simulated based on normal mode decomposition theorem. The results show that megasonic wave can focus on the local area of sound radiation zone axis, and the distribution of wave nodes reflects the shape of vibration source, which is different from low frequency ultrasonic with diffuse sound energy. The measurement of ultrasonic sound pressure hydrophone is consistent with the theoretical results. The theory value is lower than the experiment value due to the cut-off error and nonlinear cavitation effect.
2014, 35(4):330-333. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04004
Abstract:2-chloro-5-trifluoromethyl pyridine-4-yl-boronic acid was prepared with 2-chloro-4-iodo-5-trifluoromethyl pyridine as the raw material through reaction with n-butyl lithium reagent. Several reaction conditions of the synthesis process were studied through the experiment. The purity and structure of the products were characterized by HPLC, FTIR and 1H NMR. Experimental result shows that when the temperature is -70 ℃, the reaction time is 2 h, the molar ratio of n(C6H2ClF3IN)∶n(C12H27BO3)∶n(C4H9Li) is=1.00∶1.20∶1.20, and the pH is 9.0, the yield of 2-chloro-5-trifluoromethyl pyridine-4-yl-boronic acid reaches 83.10%, and its purity is up to 98.65%.
2014, 35(4):334-338. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04005
Abstract:Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant. Synthesis of apixaban intermediate from nitroaniline and 5-chloro-valeryl chloride is described through four steps, including acylation-cyclization, chlorination to the dichloro-intermediate, condensation-elimination of the chloro groups and cyclization-elimination. The total yield of the 4-step procedure is 58.1%. The raw materials are easily available, the reaction steps are less, the reaction condition is mild, and the high product purity (by HPLC) reaches 99.5%. The procedure provides raw material for synthesis of apixaban.
2014, 35(4):339-348. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04006
Abstract:Drug nanocrystal technology is an innovative formulation approach to increase the solubility of poorly water-soluble drug. Drug nanocrystals arouse more and more attention from pharmaceutical workers and researchers because of their features such as small particle size, high drug loadings, increased saturation solubility and accelerated dissolution velocity. Based on the literature at home and abroad, the characteristics of drug nanocrystals, solubilization mechanism, preparation technologies, stabilizer used in its preparation and market applications are reviewed.
2014, 35(4):349-353. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04007
Abstract:Hollow alumina spheres with mesoporous structure were successfully prepared by using N-doped carbon spheres as hard template, triblock copolymer F127 as soft template and aluminum nitrate as precursors. The morphology and structure of hollow mesoporous alumina sphere were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 absorption and desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, which shows that the as-prepared hollow alumina spheres have uniform pore sizes of 500 nm, and shell thickness with disordered structures possesses the wormlike mesoporous, indicating the existence of amorphous structure, and this sample has a pore size distribution of 17 nm, BET surface area of 153 m2/g, and pore volumes of 0.67 cm3/g. The formation mechanism of hollow mesoporous alumina spheres is discussed in detail.
2014, 35(4):354-360. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04008
Abstract:Though an experiment of exposing Daphnia magna and recovering its offspring for both 21 days, the chronic toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to Daphnia magna and its first and third broods F1 (1st) and F1(3rd) were investigated. Results show that when the mass concentration of PFOS is higher than 20 mg/L, the number of offspring, length and innate increase rate are significantly inhibited. Compared with the control group, the reduction of the three indicators under the highest exposure concentration are 62.2%, 40.6%, 34.0%(p<0.01), respectively. The toxic effect becomes more serious with gradually increasing of exposure concentration, which shows an obvious dose-response relationship between PFOS concentration of exposure and the toxicity to Daphnia magna. The number of offspring and length of the F1(1st) generation are significantly inhibited when PFOS mass concentration is higher than 30 mg/L. The F1(3rd) generation's recovery extent is better than that of the F1(3rd) generation, and all the indicators recover closely to those of the control group except that the number of offspring, length and innate rate of increase are significantly inhibited when the Daphnia magna is exposed to the PFOS of 50 mg/L. As the most sensitive indicator, the number of offspring, length and innate rate of increase of Daphnia magna are suggested for evaluation of PFOS chronic toxicity.
2014, 35(4):361-365. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04009
Abstract:Based on the DMC5480 motion control card, the RS232 serial communication is achieved by using the visual processing system, and a precise positioning system that can identify the robot arm is designed. The control system hardware is studied in detail and its control strategy is planned followed by preparing the PC operating software. Finally, an arm of a chess robot with visual recognition is designed. Experimental results show that the robot arm can replace the manual function along an arbitrary trajectory in the work area.
2014, 35(4):366-369. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04010
Abstract:According to stress assessment methods in the standard of steel pressure vessel- design by stress analysis (JB 4732-1995), two paths were constructed, including a traditional path1 and a path2 recommended by pressure vessel GB 150-2011, and the minimum thickness of the nozzles for openings with a diameter of 100~1 000 mm on cylinders with a diameter of 1 000~3 000 mm was designed by using finite element method (FEM). The analysis result was compared with that from area replacement method. The result shows that the area replacement method is danger than the traditional path1, but a little more conservative than the path2 appealed by GB 150-2011. According to the practice experiences and the finite element results, the path2 is more suitable to practical situation.
2014, 35(4):370-375. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04011
Abstract:By using finite element software ANSYS, the stress of the annular sector semicircular cross section vessel, which is made up of an annular sector plate, two semicircular plates and a semi-cylindrical with the thicknesses of 20 mm, is analyzed. The analysis results show that the maximum equivalent stress of the annular sector plate appears in the middle of the plate, and the maximum equivalent stresses of the semicircular plate and the semi-cylindrical appear in the inner surface connection place. The equivalent stress distribution trends of the annular sector plate, semicircular plates and the semi-cylindrical are obtained. Meanwhile, the equivalent stresses and the sizes of the high stress areas and stress-stable areas in the annular sector plate and semi-cylindrical inner and outer surface areas are obtained. The research result provides a reference for the design of annular sector semicircular cross section vessel.
2014, 35(4):376-383. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04012
Abstract:The universal measurement device for barrel angle acquisition in the simulated fire training of armored vehicles is designed and implemented. The device eventually becomes a measurement element in universal mounting simulated shooting training system. This paper presents the principles and methods of this device in details. The ADXL345 three-axis accelerometer is adopted in the tilt and pitch angles' acquisition of this device to achieve high accuracy requirements. In the measurements of azimuth angle, the groove coupler and grating disk are used as the core counting elements for the angle's measurement. The solving process is conducted in the device for the collected data of each angle of the barrel, and the data transfer and display are achieved though serial interface or LCD.
2014, 35(4):384-391. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04013
Abstract:A damage detection method based on curvature mode difference and wavelet transformation is used to determine the damage location of common gird structures including square pyramid space grid structure, orthogonal space truss structure, two way diagonal lattice grids structure, three way latticed grid and honeycomb triangular pyramid grid structure. The curvature mode difference of pre- and post-damage is taken as the wavelet transform analysis signal, and it is analyzed by discrete wavelet transform using wavelet function db3, then the damage location of links will be obtained. Numerical analysis shows that this method can effectively identify single damage location and multi-damage location of grid structures after obtaining only the first mode condition.
2014, 35(4):392-396. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04014
Abstract:This study established a method for determination of heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Mn in soil by flame atomic absorption spectrometry using graphite digestion device. A pretreatment process was confirmed after the pretreatment condition such as digestion system and amount of sample for digestion were optimized. The detection limits are 0.62,0.48,0.45,0.53 and 0.50 mg/kg for Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni and Mn, respectively. Recoveries are between 96.5% and 105%. RSD are between 0.8% and 2.0%.
2014, 35(4):397-402. DOI: 10.7535/hbkd.2014yx04015
Abstract:Reproductive isolation is important in speciation and maintaining species identity, so it is very significant in optimization of breeding rice. S5 locus is a cloned gene controlling the reproductive isolation, which produces proteins S5-ORF3, ORF4 and ORF5 that work together to regulate fertility in indica-japonica hybrids, and especially the S5-ORF3 protein plays a very important role in distorting reproductive isolation among indica-japonica and enhancing gene flow among populations. The evolutionary analysis of S5-ORF3 is significant for studying its function and origin, which is still no reported. In this paper, based on sequence and evolution analysis, it is proposed that the S5-ORF3 is a new HSP70 family protein which is located in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lacks of multi-peptide binding domain. Evolution analysis suggests that S5-ORF3 might act on ER stress via affecting alpha-amylase synthesis; moreover, 19 homologous proteins of S5-ORF3 are found, ML phylogenetic tree is constructed, and it is found that there is close evolution relationship between rice S5-ORF3 and a luminal-binding protein of Aegilops tauschii; the 3D structure of S5-ORF3 with confidence of 100% is predicted, as well as a ligand-binding site located in the middle of S5-ORF3. The specific motif of rice S5-ORF3 among HSP70 family is also found. This work may provide some clues and data for studying function and evolution history of rice S5-ORF3.